Diet

Diet for heart attack and other cardiovascular diseaseshas a number of features. Basically,diet for heart diseaseyou should limit salt intake. Indeed, heart failure disrupts water-salt metabolism, retains sodium ions in the body, which in turn leads to the accumulation of fluid and the appearance of edema, which naturally complicates the work already. sick heart.

Diet for heart attack and other cardiovascular diseaseshas a number of features. First of all, you should limit salt intake. Indeed, heart failure disrupts water-salt metabolism, retains sodium ions in the body, which in turn leads to the accumulation of fluid and the appearance of edema, which naturally complicates the work already. sick heart.

How much salt can be consumed per day is usually determined individually by the doctor for each patient. However, on average, the norm is not more than 5-6 g, and in some, especially severe cases, salt should be completely abandoned.

Liquids should also not be used excessively. Generally, doctors recommend drinking up to one and a half liters of fluid a day, including soup and jelly. However, it is generally not possible without water, because otherwise it will be difficult to excrete nitrogenous metabolic products, so the patient may develop undesirable weakness, constipation, even in heart failure, which is accompanied by cardiovascular disease. Ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, heart defects, cardiomyopathy and others. Thus, it is better for heart patients to quench their thirst with weak tea, perhaps fruit tea. You should not drink coffee or if you drink it is weak with milk.

Diet for heart attack and other cardiovascular diseasessuggests that the diet should be as rich in trace elements as potassium and magnesium. As a result, if the sodium in the patient's body is delayed, potassium, on the contrary, leaves it densely. Potassium deficiency can lead to life-threatening arrhythmias. Potassium and magnesium are two very important trace minerals. Potassium is needed for the normal functioning of the heart muscle, and magnesium is needed for blood vessels. Therefore, heart patients are advised to eat dried plums, nuts, beets, potatoes, cabbage, ie foods high in potassium. Potassium is also rich in citrus fruits, buckwheat, oatmeal, rice, black and red currants, raspberries, clouds, cranberries, gooseberries. Magnesium is rich in grains, bread, walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts, sunflower seeds, watermelon, seaweed.

Patients with cardiovascular disease should not forget that the food should be light, you should not overeat, and the diet should be fractional, that is, you should eat a little, but 5-6 times a day. After all, a large amount of food that immediately enters the stomach is a great burden not only on the digestive system, but also on the cardiovascular system.

With heart failure, the acid-base balance shifts to the acidic side. Milk and fermented dairy products, vegetables, herbs, fruits, berries will help restore it. However, for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, for example, with flatulence, most vegetables should be used cooked or uncooked.

Patients should also limit sugar in their diet. It can contribute to the appearance of edema, which complicates the work of the heart. Fatty foods should be avoided, especially if the patient is overweight. It is better to eat lean meat (boiled chicken, beef, etc. ) next to lean fish. Side dishes for such meat should be vegetables (boiled potatoes, cabbage, carrots, pumpkin, etc. ). Soups should be eaten vegetarian: vegetables, milk and even fruits. Patients with overweight heart failure limit their bread intake (no more than two or three slices a day).

The amount of animal fats (animal fat, fatty meat, sour cream) and eggs should be strictly limited. Fish and vegetable oils, especially unrefined oils, are extremely beneficial.

Currently, the popularity of the so-called Mediterranean diet is growing, which, according to research, will effectively prevent the development of cardiovascular disease and its complications (see a separate article in our guide).

In any case, the nutrition of patients with heart failure should be carried out under the supervision of a cardiologist and dietitian.

Mediterranean diet

The peoples of the Mediterranean have a very general idea of what we really need to eat. The Mediterranean diet is not a diet in the full sense of the word, but a system that explains the type of food and cooking tradition in the region. Mediterranean residents have the lowest mortality rates from cardiovascular disease and actually eat cheese, meat and alcohol. Thus, it can be called a unique, non-classical and less strict diet for heart attack and other cardiovascular diseases.

The Mediterranean diet is not specifically designed to lose weight and is not strict. At the same time, our daily menu is rich in animal fats, which allows you to choose healthy foods that do not contain sugar and canned food. The foundation of the Mediterranean diet should be the foundation of your daily diet. This means the elimination of canned foods, frozen foods, all heavy English foods.

Important facts about the Mediterranean diet were presented in January 1993 at Harvard University's Faculty of Public Health and the Protection and Exchange of Old Roads, at a conference in Crete to study the impact of Mediterranean dietary traditions. , Regions of Greece, southern Italy and northern Africa - a phenomenally low level of chronic diseases of the cardiovascular system. Italians in particular have always intuitively understood that such a product combination is best suited to compensate for the lack of meat, and it was the culinary combinations of these ingredients that gave life to the rich, colorful Italian cuisine. After examining more than 20, 000 Greeks, scientists have found that people who follow the Mediterranean diet reduce their risk of dying from cancer by 24 percent and heart disease by 33 percent.

Studies of the effects of the Mediterranean diet on the body have shown that those who eat according to the classic "Mediterranean diet" are three times more likely to survive than people who eat high-cholesterol foods. Research Director Dr. Roberto Marchioli stressed that people who have frequent heart attacks can reduce their frequency by eliminating foods containing saturated fats, such as fat, from their diets. In addition, the study found that taking a very unsaturated acid n-3 dietary supplement in the specific oils of certain fish species had an extremely beneficial effect on heart muscle function. .

Mediterranean peoples eat a lot of fresh fish and other fresh produce, but consume less canned food. Recent research shows that vegetable oils, especially olive and fish oils, are needed for the body to produce prostaglandins. These are hormones that regulate cellular metabolism and prevent heart attacks, strokes and many other diseases. Small amounts of alcohol also promote the production of prostaglandins.

According to the European Heart Network, more than 50% of a person's daily caloric needs must be supplemented with complex carbohydrates, for which pasta is a leader among foods and makes this wonderful product an integral part of the Mediterranean diet. According to Francisco Perez, a professor of medicine at the University of Cordoba, the Mediterranean diet is an ideal alternative to many modern diets and should be considered a special diet. Meat (pork, beef or lamb) is consumed every month, but not necessarily every week. Poultry (chicken, goose, ostrich) eggs and sweets are consumed every week, but not necessarily every day. Vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes (humus), cereals, olive oil, cheese, yogurt and fish are consumed almost every day.

It is generally believed that the beneficial effects of diet are determined by olive oil, but a research team led by Antonia Trichopoulou from the University of Athens has shown that it is impossible to isolate any component that has a beneficial effect, and it shows itself in this way. is the result of combining products. It has been claimed that adherence to the Mediterranean diet is generally inversely related to death. That is, the more strongly the features of the Mediterranean diet are expressed in human nutrition, the less cancer and cardiovascular disease. The Mediterranean diet group had twice as much daily alpha-linolenic acid as the control group. Fewer cardiovascular events have been reported in Mediterranean dieters over the past two years (39 vs. 76; p. 39). <0. 001), sudden coronary mortality (6 vs. 16; p = 0. 015) and fatal myocardial infarction (21 vs. 43; p<0. 001). In both groups, serum cholesterol levels were significantly reduced and the severity of other cardiovascular risk factors was reduced. However, the favorable changes were more noticeable in the Mediterranean diet group.

It is no coincidence that French and Italian restaurants have become very popular all over the world, and especially in Japan, where the problems of improving the health of the population are solved at the highest level, and Japan has become one of the world leaders in the purchase of famous French wines.

There is nothing mysterious about the Mediterranean diet. Simply put, in modern industrial society, dairy products, red meat, as well as fast food and ready-made products have become staple foods. Under the slogan "Fight for a slim figure", the consumption of pasta, rice and potatoes is significantly reduced - it is likely that the carbohydrates in it help to lose weight. Mediterranean residents traditionally follow a completely different diet, consuming less red meat and eggs, but lean fish, seafood and poultry come first.

The basic principles of seafood cuisine are quite simple. Wheat, barley and hemp foods provide carbohydrates. High-carbohydrate foods are definitely experienced with garlic, onions, herbs, which, as you can see, slow down the aging process of cells. Everything stimulates digestion, activates the liver and so on. It is cooked in olive oil. Fruits and vegetables are used daily. Dairy products are preferred to low-fat cheeses and natural yogurts.

It doesn't look complicated, but in fact the difference with ordinary "urban" foods is huge, because all "Mediterranean" foods are rich in vitamin F, also called youth vitamin. Fruits and vegetables, especially cereals (pasta, sprouted wheat germ, whole grains and wholemeal bread), chestnuts, hemp, sunflowers and nuts, are high in vitamin F. In addition, the lack of such a diet is very rich in polysaccharides, which are extremely dangerous to health. Causes diseases of the digestive system up to bowel cancer.

The Mediterranean diet contains all the polysaccharides the body needs: cellulose (fruits and vegetables), pectins (apples, currants, pomegranates, carrots), plant itself (cereals, algae, wild rice, hemp seeds, some fruits - quince, prunes ands. ). )).

Don't be afraid of pasta, if it is made of durum wheat. Then they are not only high in calories, but also rich in "slow" sugars, which provide the human body with a stable blood glucose content, ie a normal level of relatively low-calorie insulin. In short, the Mediterranean diet is a classic combination of taste and work. Go for it!

Typical menu for the day

Breakfast:Some fruit, a little fresh bread and juice or water.

Lunch:Salad with tuna, anchovies and olives, sprinkled with olive oil, a few glasses of water.

Lunch:Large bell pepper stuffed with rice, minced meat, tomatoes and greens, filtered and cooked in olive oil. Salad and fresh bread. You can drink a glass of red wine.

In terms of weight loss, this diet does not lose weight instantly, but helps to develop healthy eating habits that will get rid of lost weight forever.